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FAQs

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Lining installations – bonding/adhesion – grouting
What is the proper course of action for finish surface lining installation (ceramic tiles, granite, marble, other) on walls, floors or other surfaces? What is the proper course of action for finish surface lining installation (ceramic tiles, granite, marble, other) on walls, floors or other surfaces? What is the proper course of action for finish surface lining installation What is the proper course of action for finish surface lining installation (ceramic tiles, granite, marble, other) on walls, floors or other surfaces? (ceramic tiles, granite, marble, other) on walls, floors or other surfaces? What is the proper course of action for finish surface lining installation (ceramic tiles, granite, marble, other) on walls, floors or other surfaces?
First off, check and correct the substrate level or, (if necessary), create the appropriate pitch on the surface. Continue by making sure the application surface is clean, stable (remove all loose section, as needed) and watertight. Make the substrate watertight by priming and/or waterproofing it. Once the substrate is watertight and dry, continue to the next step by applying the adhesive onto the surface and install the lining tiles. Allow for the installation to thoroughly dry and proceed to the next step by grouting the lining (grout) joints. At this point, it is necessary to create expansion joints around the perimeter of the lining and on every 16-20m2 of the lined surface. Depending on the grouting product used, it may be necessary to waterproof the grouting material (cementitious grouts). If necessary, waterproof the entire tiled surface at the same time as well. Complete the installation by sealing with specific purpose sealants all the breakpoints through the lining (railing bases etc.).

Why should I stabilize and waterproof the substrate of the lining?
The stabilization of the substrate ensures the stability of the application and maintains its longevity without problems or failures. The waterproofing of the substrate prevents the penetration of moisture in it, which causes damage, failure of the adhesive (detachment of lining tiles), disintegration, mold creation and black spots on the opposite side of the substrate (wall, ceiling).
How can I choose the appropriate adhesive product?
Usually, the cost of the adhesive product is only a small fraction of the total cost of the lining installation (tiles, labor costs, etc.). It does, however, function as a safety valve for the proper function of the lining for a long time. Please, keep in mind when choosing the adhesive product for your project that it is always a good idea to choose a high quality adhesive (C2TE S1 and S2). DUROSTICK GOLD, EXTRA POWER and ELASTIC, just to name a few. In any case, a number of factors must be weighed when choosing. Factors such as whether the installation is indoors or out, the weight and dimensions of the lining elements (length x width and thickness/height of the elements), the height of the lining above ground (there is legislation for marble and granite facade installation that determines their installation standard that must be followed), the exposure of the lining to water (fountains, swimming pools) or humidity (bathrooms, kitchens). Therefore, depending on the project, choose the adhesive product that meets the requirements and specifications of each and every lining installation. If you have any doubt or reservation about the correct choice of adhesive product(s), call the Technical Support Team of DUROSTICK. Remember that cheap materials always do expensive damage.
What grouting product should I use?
There are different types of grouting product available at your disposal, in a variety of both colors and materials as well. The most common product used today is the cementitious type. There are other types of grouting products, such as epoxy grouts (DUROSTICK EPOXY), but also specialty products (FLEXIBLE & OIL REPELLENT GROUT of DUROSTICK, DS-POLYMER available in 32 colors). Choose the grouting product depending on the conditions of the lining installation site(s) as well as the weather and environmental factors that affect the installation site(s).  For example, epoxy grout is ideal for bathrooms, pools or places that must maintain strict hygiene conditions. The FLEXIBLE & OIL REPELLENT GROUT is ideal for environments and sites affected by intense and sudden temperature changes and therefore intense expansions and contractions. It is also necessary for linings installed with flexible/deformable adhesives (S1 & S2), so as to work as a system with those adhesives. Cementitious grouts are products used most often and they are usually available in a variety of colors, suitable for most application widths. For stone linings use specialized grouts, such as DUROSTICK D-4, for natural stone and slabs.
Why should I waterproof my grouting joints or even my entire lining?
To protect both of them (grout-lining) from moisture penetration in them and subsequently into the substrates. Moisture penetration leads to mold and mildew growth, disintegration, loss of bonding strength of the adhesion product (resulting in detachments of investment elements), staining and discoloration of the grout joints and/or of the lining. Certain waterproofing agents, such as D-29 SPOT FREE of DUROSTICK, yield nonslip properties to linings as well as just waterproof them.  Waterproof grout joints using DUROSTICK D-16 and waterproof the entire lining using D-29 SPOT FREE or NANO PROOF MARMO DS-275 of DUROSTICK.
What are expansion joints? Are they necessary?
Generally speaking, an expansion joint is a joint between two sections of a single, or multiple structures. This specific joint allows for the expansion and contraction of the structure(s) thereof may occur due to temperature changes (increase or decrease), without causing structure, or even structural damage. In particular, and when talking about linings made of tiles, marble, granite, etc., expansion joints, must necessarily be created on the perimeter, at every junction with other construction elements (walls, parapets, etc.), and on every 16-25m2 (outdoors linings mostly) of surface, to prevent weathering and cracking of joints, lining element detachments and deterioration in general. In the event that the substrate of the lining is traversed by expansion joints (e.g. building expansion joint), then the new lining expansion joints must necessarily follow (created over) those of the substrate. Fill the expansion joints using specialized products for the task, products such as DUROFLEX-PU, DS-POLYMER.
How can I clean the construction residues generated during the installation and grouting of the new lining surface(s)?
The proper way of cleaning all installation and grouting residues is to clean them while they are still fresh, during the installation and the grouting of that lining. Residues can also be removed by using special purpose cleaners, at the appropriate time frame and a specific manner, always as described in their individual packaging. Cleaners such as ACID TILE CLEANER of DUROSTICK, BIOCLEAN EPOXY GROUT CLEANER, and D-7 NATURAL STONE CLEANER. In some cases, it might be necessary to use mechanical means (scraper, putty knife etc.) to remove residues and debris. If that is the case, always use extreme caution to prevent damaging the finish surface. Complete the cleaning process using mild detergent (BIOCLEAN series) to ensure perfectly clean surfaces.
What should or can I do when my lining joints are stained, discolored or even deteriorated?
First of all, carefully examine the condition of the joints and assess the situation. If you notice that the weathering or the cracking of the joint(s) is at an advanced stage, you must decide for their repair and/or replacement. The ideal product for this project is the FLEXIBLE & OIL REPELLENT GROUT of DUROSTICK. Obviously, you can also use any other grout of choice. If the joint damage is not that extended, you should follow the next few steps. Carefully clean the joints using mild cleaners once, or as many times as needed, always depending on the degree of staining and/or the discoloration. For tougher stains, use the ACID TILE CLEANER of DUROSTICK. Continuing, and to prevent the recurrence of the problem, waterproof all the joints using the special purpose siloxane based waterproofing agent, D-16 HYDROSTOP. Alternatively, waterproof the entire lining surface using the special purpose waterproofing and anti slip agent, D-29 SPOT FREE of DUROSTICK.
What should I do if a lining element (e.g. tile) was detached, cracked or broken?
Carefully remove the grout material around the detached, cracked or broken tile, so as to not damage the adjacent tiles of the lining itself during the removal of the defective piece. Wherever possible, remove the existing adhesive from the substrate. Continue, by thoroughly clean the area and remove all loose parts, dust, and foreign materials. Apply the right amount of glue (the appropriate adhesive for the type of tile you are installing) on the substrate, and if need be, coat the back side of the replacement tile as well. Carefully install the replacement tile and make sure that it is installed at the same height and level with the rest of the tiles. NOTE: If after removing the cracked, broken or detached tile, you are not able to remove a part or the entire amount of the adhesive remnants, install the new tile using DUROSTICK No. 37, the waterproof liquid adhesive for tiles. Once the adhesive is dry, complete the repair by grouting all the open joints. It is always advisable to grout using a grouting product with similar or better specifications than the existing one (the grouting product that was originally used for the lining).
If I want to renovate my existing finished surface(s), can I install a new one right over the preexisting one(s)?
First off, thoroughly check for any repairs that the existing surface(s) might require. Inspect all the breakpoints as well as all the joints of the existing finish surface with doors, windows or any other contact point. Once the stability of the existing surface has been verified, then you can proceed with the installation of the new finish surface over the existing one. To achieve a new installation without any concerns, the adhesive product used must be one of high quality (C2TE and above) and flexibility (S1 or S2). When choosing an increased quality and specification adhesive product, it is highly recommended to use a flexible grouting product, such as the FLEXIBLE & OIL REPELLENT GROUT of DUROSTICK. It is absolutely necessary to create new expansion joints following the existing ones from the previous finish surface. If there are no expansion joints on the existing surface, it is highly advisable to create them on the new finish surface.
What should I do if there is moisture or water (water leak or otherwise) behind/under my finish surface lining?
What you should focus your attention on, when trying to identify the root of a problem, is a detached tile or mold and black spot creation on the opposite side of the wall, the slab or in an adjoining area. The first thing you must inspect for is a plumbing or sewer system leak. Check for deteriorated grout joints on finish surface linings and failing breakpoint seals (around railing posts, frames etc.). Repair or replace, as needed. Then examine the extent of the problem. A tested way to do this is by removing tiles in the opposite corners of the lining (usually) to check for the presence of moisture in the substrate(s). Do not replace the tiles for some time (maybe even for a month, depending on the location of the problem - indoors or out- the temperatures at that time, etc.). Those open points act as vents and allow for the moisture to evaporate from the substrate. Once the substrate looks and feels dry, remove one to two additional tiles further away from the original problem area to find out if all the moisture has been removed from the substrate. When you see the problem finally resolved, proceed with the installation of the replacement tiles on the lining and the waterproofing of the joints (preferably all of the joints).  
What should I do at the lining breakpoints (railing and pergola posts, mounting brackets etc.) and why?
All the lining breakpoints (usually mounts of various objects and railing posts) at some point work as passageways to moisture and/or rain water. All those breakpoints must necessarily be sealed with special purpose flexible sealants (DUROFLEX PU, DS-POLYMER, DUROWOOD DS-POLYMER of DUROSTICK), to prevent water and moisture penetration into the substrates of the lining and the damage those penetrations will eventually cause to adjacent sections of the substrate.
Is there any information available from DUROSTICK in print, digital or any other form that I can find details relating to tile and grout questions, installations, as well as problem solving?
DUROSTICK has created and continues to create technical, informational and educational materials for a variety of solutions and applications that go hand-in-hand with its products. DUROSTICK has the solution for every construction, maintenance, repair, renovation, decoration and beautification need of your house or your space in general. All this material is available at your fingertips in print and digital form at our points of sale, directly by the company and on our websites www.durostick.gr and www.yparxeilysi.gr. We create technical and informational leaflets, filmed applications, real life application samples (available at the points of sale, at expos and events), so you can actually touch, see and feel the end result. Obviously, the company's Technical Support Team via the telephone, The Internet and, in some cases, with on-site visitation if and when needed, is at your disposal. They will inform you and get you familiar with whatever you are trying to do, they will assist you and solve all your questions and direct you to the appropriate solutions that apply to your individual needs, they will definitely put your mind at ease.
Waterproofing surfaces (walls - floors)
Why should construction surfaces have to be waterproofed?
The need to waterproof building surfaces exists because it is absolutely necessary to prevent moisture penetration into substrates and all adjacent building components thereof. Thereby, one avoids all related problems caused by moisture. Problems such as weathering, construction/lining element detachments, weakening of structure and structural products, rot, concrete carbonation, the creation of an environment that favors the creation of mold, black spots, fungi and other pathogens.
What are the benefits of waterproofing a building structure or house?
Generally speaking, every building structure or house is a ‘living, breathing organism’ that reacts with the environment surrounding it while affecting and being affected by that very environment. Therefore, the waterproofing of a structure or building, in terms of its different structure elements (roof or rooftop, walls, basement, ground floor etc), functions as a barrier that prevents moisture from penetrating into the outer construction elements but into the indoor spaces as well. So, by waterproofing the building structure, one protects it from wear, preventable damage, and deterioration that moisture definitely causes. In addition, waterproofing of a building prevents the negative effects of moisture to the indoor microclimate as well, thus significantly improving living conditions of the people residing in it.
What waterproofing solutions and products are available to me? How can I choose?
The available options, in terms of waterproofing products, are many and beyond the scope of this text. However, the options most frequently found and implemented are the following: cementitious waterproofing products such as HYDROSTOP ROOF and TWO COMPONENT HYDROSTOP, elastomeric waterproofing products  such as DS-220 and No39, as well as bituminous/asphalt based materials. All above products and their applications have their advantages and disadvantages. Proper waterproofing requires knowledge and strict adherence to the application instructions of the chosen product(s). Those applications are usually carried out by professionals. However, non-professional individuals can also apply waterproofing products, mainly elastomeric products for roofs with simple application steps, using a roller and/or a brush. Waterproofing vertical surfaces (walls, foundation walls) is usually accomplished with elastomeric paints which present waterproofing/sealing (D-80 of DUROSTICK), or even simultaneously waterproofing/sealing and insulating properties (THERMOELASTIC COLOUR of DUROSTICK). The waterproofing of wet spaces or surfaces (underground areas, basements etc.), or areas and spaces exposed to permanently increased moisture levels, (swimming pools), is accomplished with specially designed products for such difficult and demanding applications. Those products sometimes (depending on the product chosen), have approved certifications, as per their quality as well as their performance (WATERTANK, D-1 of DUROSTICK).
How and where do I start? What do I need to know and what should I take into consideration before proceeding to the waterproofing of my space/area?
Start from the most vulnerable areas of the building. Areas being most affected, and, in turn, affect themselves the 'health' and proper function of the building. Such areas are the sloped roof, the flat roof of the building, and the basement (if one exists). One has to always weigh the gain versus cost factor of the application, the duration of time without damage and losses, whether one can apply the product by him/herself or somebody else (a craftsman or a professional) has to implement this application (additional labor cost) etc. Take into account the use of the waterproofed surface, whether  the waterproofed surface (roof) will be a visited area, if any lining will be installed over the waterproofing product, whether immediately after the waterproofing or in the future, additional applications will be implemented over the waterproofing (roof garden creation etc). Last but not least, one has to consider if the surface will be thermally insulated as well as waterproofed etc.
What is the most appropriate time period to waterproof indoor and outdoor surfaces?
There are no time restrictions or ‘appropriate’ time periods for indoor waterproofing or sealing applications. The same is not true when it comes to outdoor applications though. Usually, most waterproofing and sealing applications are completed when temperatures are not too hi (above 35oC), or very low (below 5oC). It is also very important to not expect any rain 24-48 hours after the completion of the application. Please keep in mind that the relative humidity in the atmosphere should not exceed the 70% mark, because, in such case, the curing time of the waterproofing product will be extended. In keeping with the ideal waterproofing/sealing time periods, as explained above, traditionally the application periods range from late spring to early summer and during the autumn season, with ideal months being September and October. Obviously during those select periods, everything depends on the weather conditions prevailing at that time. Obviously, one can also utilize the dry periods during the winter season, just as long as one follows the temperature limitation rule (no applications when temperatures are, or will drop, below 5oC.
What is a waterproofing product suitable for positive and negative pressures?
We will explain with an example. The waterproofing of the buildings' basement is usually done during the construction stage, and always before the backfilling. The waterproofing product is applied to the outer sides of the buildings' foundation walls. The product now works as a barrier blocking all the moisture coming from the ground, which is touching the sides of the building, from entering into the wall structure of the foundation and the basement. The pressure that the ground moisture applies to the wall surfaces while trying to penetrate in, is defined as 'positive' pressure. Now, let us assume that the basement is not waterproofed as described above, and there is a need to waterproof and seal it. This waterproofing application will have to be done from the indoor part of the wall structure since the backfilling is completed and it is not cost effective to reopen a trench around the building. It is imperative to ensure the stability of the substrate (brick, plaster, concrete element) and then waterproof the inner wall surfaces. Once the soil/ground moisture penetrates through the wall structure, it 'attacks' the waterproofing coat(s), which then serves as moisture barrier preventing that moisture penetration into the inner space of the basement. The pressure, in this case, is defined as 'negative' pressure. The waterproofing/sealing product that performs satisfactorily in both cases is deemed as a product compatible and suitable for applications affected by either positive and/or negative pressure.
Can I waterproof on my own or do I necessarily need the assistance of a craftsman/professional?
Waterproofing is a job or a project that differs, depending on the waterproofing product and the application method. If you are handy and you possess some knowledge of the application steps (from relevant brochures and texts, filmed applications, the Internet etc.), then yes, you can do it. Caution: Pay special and close attention to the substrate. It must be properly prepared and receive all necessary interventions in order to accept the waterproofing coating(s) safety. That will ensure the application results and maintain its effectiveness for many years to come. Elastomeric waterproofers, as well as some polyurethane sealing products, are applied as regular paints, using an emulsion brush or roller. They are easy to apply, even by someone who is not experienced in these types of applications providing that one strictly follows all application instructions. Cementitious waterproofers typically require the encasement of a reinforcing mesh during most roof application, in between the waterproofing coats. This application detail, together with the preparation of the waterproofing product itself, is what makes cementitious sealing products a difficult case, in terms of their preparation and application. However, if one is very meticulous in following all preparation and application instructions, then yes, you can do it yourself. Asphalt based products (rolls, torch down etc.) are a different case altogether, and it is highly recommended to allow for a professional waterproofing crew to apply them. In any event, any waterproofing application without the help of a craftsman or a professional greatly reduces the total cost of the project, since labor costs will not be added to the total expense.
How do I ensure the expected, (as per the product), excellent results and long term durability from the waterproofing with minimal damage?
The best way to ensure excellent results is by starting with the conditioning of the substrate, which should be clean, stable, and free of all loose sections, foreign objects, and dust. Also, the conditions during application (temperature, humidity) and immediately after that application (24-48 hours), should be the appropriate ones, as described by each one of the waterproofing products' application instructions. Another factor for a successful application is the literal compliance with the application instructions, as provided by the manufacturer of the waterproofing product on the packaging itself. Regular inspections (at least once or even twice a year) will help to detect any and all possible damage at an early stage. That will allow for immediate repairs to be performed before the damage develops into a major problem. 
Can I repair the waterproofing surface (membrane)?
If we are talking about a small range, spot damage, then yes, it can usually be repaired. Make sure to check if moisture penetrated (and maybe trapped) into the waterproofing substrate(s). It is imperative for that moisture to be removed before doing any repair work. In cases where major damage occurred, it might be necessary to waterproof the entire surface again, using the same or different type of sealing product. Traditionally, one repairs elastomeric surfaces with elastomeric or polyurethane based waterproofers, cementitious waterproofers with cementitious or elastomeric products, and vice versa. However, one can repair asphalt/bituminous products using elastomeric sealers, but only under certain conditions, limited damage range (area to be repaired), as well as limited duration in time. Detailed application and repair instructions can be found in the technical documentation of each product.
Does the color of the waterproofing product matter?
It is always a good thing for the waterproofing coating to be of light color, preferably white or whitish. In this way, the waterproofer better reflects sunlight and better emits (dissipates) the heat accumulating on the building surface. This does not apply to asphalt type waterproofing products. Some white waterproofers/sealers are certified as 'cool' material, products such as HYDROSTOP ROOF, No39, and DS-220 of DUROSTICK, to name a few. Products with this certification constitute ideal waterproofing solutions since they possess both sealing as well as thermal insulating properties and abilities. Their insulating abilities mainly derive from their reflective action but also derive from their waterproofing function as a moisture barrier that prevents moisture penetration into a surface that reduces the thermal conductivity of the construction element.  
What do I do if moisture or even water penetrates under/behind the waterproofing coat?
It is very important to assess the extent and the cause of the problem. That is why one must locate the penetration point(s) of the moisture by carefully examining the entire surface. If the cause is due to plumbing or sewer pipe failure(s), repair them before proceeding with any other action. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove some small sections of the waterproofing coat(s), or some elements of the lining (tiles or other material), to reach the substrate. These types of work are usually carried out during the warmer months of the year. Those are the right weather/ambient conditions that will assist in the dissipation and evaporation of any accumulated moisture to the substrates. The installation of ventilation devices usually concerns waterproofing applications that use asphalt/bitumen based products. Once the moisture is located and removed thoroughly from the substrates, proceed with the repairs as needed, by patching sections of the surface(s) or by waterproofing the entire surface over. Usually, lightweight filling materials act as water accumulators so, in some cases, the substrate of the waterproofed surface will accumulate a large amount of water and/or moisture. For those cases, it might be advisable to remove both the waterproofing coat(s) along with the substrate (filling material) and reapply them both new.
What do I do in the spots where the waterproofing stops/terminates (railings, pergolas, metal or other types of support bases, posts), and why?
Thoroughly clean on and around all breakpoints and remove dust, any loose materials and foreign bodies (preferably with compressed air). Continue by applying the sealing product in the selected area/spot or the entire surface. The next step is to seal around the breakpoint (perimeter or otherwise), using a flexible polyurethane based sealant (use polyurethane based sealant for elastomeric and cementitious waterproofers).  The reason one must necessarily do this job is because breakpoints always function as potential moisture penetration points. Those points usually create problems and bypass to a greater or lesser degree the waterproofing coat(s), and subsequently trap moisture in the substrate(s).
What kind of support does DUROSTICK provide before, during, and after the purchase of its waterproofing products?
DUROSTICK is next to you, from the initial stages of looking and finding/discovering your own personal solution(s), the selection and purchase of the appropriate, for each case, waterproofing products, but also during the application steps and beyond. Available for you in most of our points of sale, you will find brochures as well as material in digital form (DVD) concerning the application of our waterproofing products. You will also find live samples with applied products for you to feel, touch and experience their effectiveness. Our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, and mobile app support, is available and at your disposal 24/7. On the company site and at the DUROSTICK channel in YOUTUBE, you will find extensive presentations of our waterproofing products and step by step, comprehensive filmed applications of those products.
Sealing joints and cracks
Why is it necessary to apply sealers on building structures?
The construction of a building, among other things, requires fitting together different materials and creating joints at various junctions of the building surfaces. Additionally, different kinds of smaller or larger cracks are constantly forming due to manufacturing defects; temperature related expansions and contractions, as well as the effects of loads (weight) and stresses. It is also common to notice manufactured expansion joints become wider and expand further than designed (construction defect). Joints and cracks are usually penetration points for moisture through the building elements. The detrimental effect of moisture penetration is evident in walls, floors and ceilings (especially inside a building/structure), and include the degradation of the indoor microclimate quality. The damaging effects of the same moisture penetration might be slower to manifest, however, the results are more significant for the structure of the building. All of the above are just some of the reasons that make sealing of cracks and joints an absolute and immediate necessity for every structure and building, by always using the appropriate products.
What are the benefits a building (or a building surface) gains by applying the necessary seals?
The reason for sealing various, mainly outdoor joints and cracks on a building or a structure is to ensure that outdoor moisture will not penetrate into the wall surfaces and pass through it to the indoor space(s) of that building or structure. Joints such as the ones around door and windows casings, termination points of various linings or edges, expansion joints, around penetrations through linings (railing and pergola posts, equipment support structure penetrations etc.), perimeter termination points and joints between lining and skirting or wall etc. Cracks such as the ones noticed on wall surfaces (hairline or bigger), as well as various lining cracks on horizontal or vertical surfaces and linings. Some of the benefits for sealing cracks and joints are: Maintain the thermal conductivity of a wall and its insulation properties. Maintain the properties of the materials composing the wall(s) (the bonding strength of a product, which is limited and compromised in a wet environment). Avoidance of mold creation and appearance of black spots inside the building (usually). Also avoidance of flaking and disintegration of the paint, salt discharges through the mass of the concrete to the surface.
What type of sealers are available to me? How can I choose the right product each time?
Today in the marketplace one can find several types and kinds of sealers. The most common, in terms of the material from which they are composed, are acrylic, asphalt, cementitious, polyurethane and epoxy based sealants. In the category of sealers, one must include paints that have the ability to seal hairline cracks (usually elastomeric paints). DUROSTICK recommends its own line of sealants that covers all the sealing needs of a building or a structure. That sealant line includes the following: DUROSTICK SILICONE, for sealing joints in various  materials, the acrylic sealants DS-POLYMER and DUROWOOD DS-POLYMER, the siliconized and paintable ACRYLIC CAULK for a wide range of applications especially before painting, the mold & mildew resistant elastomeric sealant ACRYLAT, DUROSIL FIRE the fire resistant silicone, DUROSTICK FIREPROOF the fireproof sealant for up to 1200o, the polyurethane elastomeric adhesives and sealants DUROFLEX PU and DUROFLEX PU MARINE, MS POLYMER MARINE elastomeric sealant, the cementitious sealants SUPERFLEX POWDER and D-66 REPAIR for crack and hole repairs, the highly flexible adhesive and sealant DUROFLEX POWDER, as well as D-2 polyurethane foam to name a few. Learn more about the types, applications, and how to use each one of the above sealants by visiting DUROSTICK at www.durostick.gr
Where do I start from? What should I know and take into consideration before starting any sealing project?
One must know that like any other construction application, the condition of the substrate (stable, clean, primed or soaked) is an unavoidable and necessary part of any successful application. The substrate has to be the starting point for any sealant application. One must also be sure that the appropriate sealant (compatible with the specific application), was selected and/or purchased. All compatible and appropriate applications and uses of the sealant must be described in detail in the specification text of the product, usually printed on its packaging. If the product does not carry any specification/application information try to avoid it. If you have doubts or reservations about the selection or the proper use of a product, please contact the Technical Support team. Please be advised, one also needs to ensure that the environmental conditions, during the application and even after it, is in conformity with the product instructions until the complete curing/solidification of the sealant.
Can I do it myself or should I seek expert help (craftsman)?
Yes, in most cases you can actually do it yourself, depending on your familiarity with the use of building materials and products. Read and carefully follow the application instructions found on the packaging of the selected sealant. One must also make sure that the product is the right solution for the sealing problem he/she is dealing with. If you still don't feel confident for the application or for the results, then consider it appropriate to seek the help of a professional (craftsman).
How can I ensure a great outcome and its duration in time?
Ensure the outcome by first choosing the appropriate and correct sealing product(s). Branded, certified products should be considered to have the quality required to ensure results which they claim they can achieve. Make sure the substrate is of appropriate condition for the application or, if need be, create those conditions. Carefully follow all the use and application instructions. Take into account the environment in which the sealant will be applied and remain during its life span.
What do I do if the seal fails (detachment, cracking) and/or mold or black spots begin to form around the sealed area?
Carefully remove the existing seal completely. Clean and disinfect the area using a bleach/water solution or by using DUROSTICK D-95 to remove any mold residues and microorganisms. Allow for the cleaner to act for a few minutes and rinse thoroughly. Assuming you chose the right sealant, and you adequately familiarize yourself with the application method, proceed to reseal the area.
Does the color of the sealant matter?
Most sealants are usually white, off-white or gray. However, in many instances the sealing points or joints are located in an environment with color(s), and the lining elements themselves are from a specific material (wood, stone, tile etc) which are usually of color(s) as well. For those situations and mainly for aesthetic reasons, choose colored or paintable sealants (DUROSTICK DS -POLYMER (32 colors), DUROWOOD DS-POLYMER (10 wood colors).
When I am sealing a crack, how will I know if I am just repairing a minor problem or I am just covering up a major one that could develop into a big problem in the future?
The major and most important difference when one examines one or more cracks on a building surface is whether the crack occurs on a load bearing element of that building or not. Cracks on load bearing elements may even affect the stability of the building and for that reason they should be treated with extreme caution, and when possible to be examined by specialists (engineers). Those cracks are not always visible to the naked eye, especially on surfaces that are lined in layers/coats (plastered or tiled surfaces). Those types of cracks might begin at the surface and extend deep into the structure element. This is one of the reasons that it is considered common practice and almost required to 'open up' (widen) the crack to see how deep does it go. Depending on the findings, plan the appropriate and safest way possible to repair the crack(s). Continue by select the repair product. For crack repairs on load bearing elements, the products that are used most often are epoxy based sealants. Those types of sealants are applied with a specialized procedure and for this reason, it would be advisable for such a repair to be carried out by professional specialists and in any event, after consultation with an engineer.
What kind of support does DUROSTICK provide before, during, and after the purchase of its sealing products?
DUROSTICK is next to you, from the initial stages of looking and finding/discovering your own personal solution(s), the selection and purchase of the appropriate, for each case, products, but also during the application steps and beyond. Our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, and mobile app support, is available and at your disposal 24/7. We are next to you, by making our vast information, knowledge and experience available to you in print and digital format. We are next to you with educational videos for the correct and proper use of a variety of our products. All of the above are available for you, at our points of sale and of course on the Internet, and even by mail.
Improving Additives for Mortars
What is an improving additive for a mortar (cement or lime based mortar)?
It is exactly what it says, a product which is added to the mortar during the mixing process (usually added in the mixing water of the mortar), that improves various properties of the mortar. Properties such as its flexibility, its adhesive strength (when talking about cementitious adhesive), its durability in general and more specifically its abrasion resistance, its flexural and compressive strengths.
In what form can I find the most common mortar admixtures available in the market today?
The most common mortar improving additives available in the market today are in liquid form (some more concentrated than others). They are usually called 'emulsions', (D-20, DUROMAX, DUROSTOP, and ACRYLIC EMULSION of DUROSTICK). However, one can also find improving additives in powder form (DUROSTICK RESIN POWDER) and in the form of fibers (DUROSTICK POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES). 
Is the use of improving additives in all mortars an absolute necessity?
In general, the rule of thumb says that the improvement of a products' properties, (mortar properties in this case), is always a positive effect, but only on the condition that it has been calculated as to its cost versus the benefits derived from its use. It is however considered as standard practice that is followed in a multitude of developed markets, such as Europe and the United States of America.
Is adding improving additives to mortar(s) in small or large proportions, always a positive and beneficial act?
The addition of improving additives, by volume or by weight, should be done so as to not exceed in any way the additive mixing proportions, as described on the mortar packaging. Exceeding the correct ratios could lead to opposite results from the desired ones.
Is there printed, digital or another type of information by DUROSTICK, that I can find details relating to the improving action of these products in mortars?
DUROSTICK is always by your side, from the initial stages of finding the appropriate solutions, the selection and purchase of the appropriate, per the individual project, products, but also in the implementation steps of your project(s). We are with you, together with our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, mobile app support etc. We are also with you with a multitude of printed and digital informational and educational materials for the use of our products. All of our instructional materials are available at points of sale of the products, on the Internet at the company sites, even through regular mail.
Plasters – Renders - Coatings
What is traditional and what is industrially pre-mixed plaster?
The traditional plaster is a mortar created on site (the plaster is mixed/manufactured at the site/space of application). It contains cement, sand and lime which are mixed with water. The mixing ratios of the materials may vary, more or less, depending on the situation and the person mixing the plaster. Traditional plasters can be fortified with mixing additives (D-20, DUROMAX, DUROSTOP, RESIN POWDER of DUROSTICK), as well as polypropylene fibres (DUROFIBRE etc.). Today, it is also possible to replace lime with specific substitutes, such as DUROLIT of DUROSTICK. On the other hand, the industrially pre-mixed plaster is a mortar of consistent quality, specific formula and only requires water for its preparation. The addition of mixing (improving) additives in industrially pre-mixed plasters is permissible unless otherwise indicated on the product packaging.
What type of plaster is the best solution for my house/building/structure?
It depends on, and varies, with each case: The location of the house, ('difficult' environments, mountainous or coastal areas etc.), the ability to financially cover the labor and material costs, the requirement for long lasting durability of the application with the fewest problems possible. Generally speaking, the use of industrially pre-mixed plasters presents a number of advantages over traditional plaster applications. Among those advantages, some are the repetitive formula of the product, thus consistent quality and performance, the excellent quality of the product due to its refined materials, the ease of transportation and mobility of the product since it is factory bagged, the limited requirements for improvement, in relation to traditional plasters and mortars.   
What kind of preparation, if any, does a surface needs before it is plastered?
As with any building surface that will function as a substrate and is about to be coated with an application, the surface to be plastered must necessarily be prepared and cared for appropriately. That preparation will have to do with the surface stability and bonding ability. Remove all loose and foreign material. Make sure the surface has or create if need be, the appropriate grip conditions to ensure secure plastering without risks of failure. Under certain preparation conditions, a large number of different surfaces (even wood or metal surfaces), can be plastered. One only needs to apply special purpose adhesion primers (quartz primers DS-255 & DS-260 of DUROSTICK) on the surface that will be plastered, to create the necessary bonding conditions.
What types of construction surfaces can one plaster? What should I be careful of?
All surfaces made of mineral materials, such as plaster, concrete, brick, aircrete, cement and cinder blocks etc. can be plastered. Also, surfaces made of expanded and extruded polystyrene, wood, metal and other materials can be plastered, however, it is necessary for those surfaces to be properly prepared/primed before any plaster application. 
Which are the steps for traditional plastering?
Start with a stable mineral substrate that is free from loose and foreign materials. Soak the surface thoroughly with water. Non mineral substrates must necessarily be primer with the appropriate product. Apply the first coat of plaster, commonly named 'scratch coat'. This step increases the bonding strength/grip of the surface to the coatings that will follow. Traditionally, the 'scratch coat' material used in this step is more fluid (by usually adding more water during its preparation) than the plastering mortar. Once the 'scratch coat' cures, move to the next step. Apply on the surface the 'base' or 'brown coat', usually applied in thicknesses of about 2-3cm per coat. After several days have passed (depending on weather and ambient conditions), apply the final 'top' coat or rendering coat on the surface. Traditionally 'top' coats are applied to thicknesses of up to a few millimeters. DUROSTICK offers a complete line of plaster/'top' coats, such as D-40, D-41, ROMIX marble based 'top' coat plaster, DS-74 & DS-75, HYDROSTOP PLASTER ELASTIC, and MEGAFIX. These plasters can be colored to a variety of colors, based on their corol charts. When the project requirement calls for a very smooth surface, proceed by skim coating the plastered surface with cementitious skimming pastes. The plastering of a surface can be achieved both with traditional and with industrially pre-mixed plasters as well.
Are there any alternatives to plastering? What are those and what are their advantages?
As an alternative solution to plastering, the use of one coat plasters should be mentioned. Plasters such as the D-42 of DUROSTICK, which is applied in one coat to thicknesses of up to 3cm per coat, usually.  Alternatively, one can use the resinous cement pastes GRANULAR (for thicknesses up to 20mm) and GRANULAR ULTRA (for thicknesses up to 15mm). They can be applied the same way as plasters do, or they can be applied as spakling pastes, replacing the traditional methods of plastering.
How can I make the plaster stronger and more durable?
In any case, using improving additives during the manufacturing process of the plaster improves its properties and its mechanical strengths. Using additives will also improve its waterproofing ability, flexibility, as well as its durability through time against any potential adverse environmental conditions. The additives could be in liquid form, such as D-20, DUROMAX, DUROSTOP, in powder form, such as RESIN POWDER of DUROSTICK, but also in the form of polypropylene fibers, such as DUROFIBRE etc. In special applications, using improving additives is also recommended, providing that the use of additives is not prohibited in the 'Application' and 'Instructions for use' text of the product.
Can I color the plaster mixture in its mass? If yes, why should I do that? What should I be careful of?
When talking about a plaster that is white or off-white, and its specifications allows for the addition of pigments in its composition during its manufacturing, then yes, one can color the plaster throughout its mass. Use such plasters as DS-74 & DS-75 of DUROSTICK, and use pigments such as DUROCOLOR POWDER P & C pigments in powder form. Color the plaster, either by following the products' color chart recipes or by simply trying and experimenting with different colors until one finds the color of choice. Once you color the plaster to your liking, there is no need for painting over it, unless of course you choose otherwise, for some reason (changing color etc.). The finish surface is not affected by minor damage, (in terms of its final color), since the color of the plaster is not skin deep but throughout the thickness of the application top coat. Additionally, one avoids peeling off and scaling problems since there is no paint film on the finish surface. When applying plaster that is colored throughout its mass with pigments, especially the smooth/fine finish plasters, one must necessarily prime the substrate. Priming will stabilize the absorbency of the substrate and avoid the problem of early dehydration of the plaster. It will also prevent color blotching, where different shades of the chosen color appear on the finish surface, due to the uneven absorption rate of the substrate. One can use generic primers that will be somewhat effective, or specific purpose primer, such as HYDROSTOP PLASTER PRIMER of DUROSTICK, that is manufactured for this purpose. Keep in mind that during the final plaster surface floating and
smoothing, one must not use excessive amounts of water, because there is a risk of discoloring the finish surface. The application of a plaster that was colored throughout its mass should be done by professional craftsmen, at least, most of the time.
What should I keep in mind when planning to paint a plastered surface?
A plastered surface, as paint substrate, must be stable, without any loose sections, dust, and foreign materials. The surface must have consistent absorbency throughout its length and width. To create the above-required conditions on a) unpainted plaster surfaces: clean thoroughly, repair where necessary, prime and paint, b) painted plaster surfaces: clean thoroughly, repair where necessary, verify that the surface/substrate is stable and paint. NOTE 1: In cases where the existing paint coating on the surface is glossy, before painting over it, sand the surface using sandpaper. This procedure will increase the adhesive properties/grip of the existing coating. Continue by thoroughly cleaning the entire surface and paint. NOTE 2: When you need to change the color of an already painted surface into a completely different color, then it is necessary to prime the surface before applying the new coat(s) of paint.
How can I repair/patch a plastered surface (cementitious plaster)?
The surface to be repaired must be stable, clean and lightly soaked with water or a water/emulsion solution (acrylic emulsion of DUROSTICK, D-20, DUROMAX). The grain size of the repair plaster (the size of the aggregates contained in the repair plaster), should be equal to the grain size of the existing plaster coating on the building structure you are repairing. That will prevent visible patches from forming after the repair is completed. Use an improving additive with the repair plaster to increase the flexibility of the product and avoid future cracking at the edges of the repair. Alternatively, use industrially pre-mixed repair products, manufactured with increased flexibility, such as SUPER FLEX POWDER, and D-66 REPAIR. One can also use D-32 of DUROSTICK with the addition of D-20. Once the repair is completed and everything is adequately dry, proceed to spot paint the repaired area, or, more preferably, repaint the surface.    
Can I plaster over a surface that is already plastered? If yes, why should I do something like that?
Most of the time we deal with already plastered and painted surfaces. The reasons one should plaster over an already plastered surface(s), are both aesthetics as well as practical (worn out surfaces in poor condition, surfaces  with cracks, scratches, deterioration to a large or smaller extent and significance). After properly preparing the existing surface that will act as the substrate for the new plaster, carefully choose the plastering product for the new application. The plastering product itself and its abilities  could be the reason for proceeding with the replastering of the surface. Plaster directly over a stable and sound substrate, using the flexible, waterproofing cementitious plaster of DUROSTICK HYDROSTOP PLASTER ELASTIC. Alternatively, use the repair mortar MEGAFIX over the existing, stable substrate on part or the entire wall surface. Choosing one of the two above mentioned products, yields exceptional results, creating excellent surfaces that remain durable long term, partially because of their flexibility and strong adhesive strength. What we are talking about here is essentially the renewal of the space and of the aesthetic image of the building, giving it practically 'new life'.
The plaster surface(s) in my house developed mold and white spots. Why? What should I do to deal with these problems?
Although different from each other, both situations have the common denominator of moisture that has penetrated into the wall structure. In most cases, moisture concentration in excess levels creates favorable conditions for growth of mold and other microorganisms on a surface or even an entire space. In addition, when moisture penetrates into the mass of cementitious plasters, it dissolves any salts that exist in it. That results in the secretion of the dissolved salts to the surface of the plaster, in the form of white stains. The reasons responsible for moisture penetrations into wall surfaces (plastered surfaces) vary in each case and they could be more than one. Indicatively we mention some of them: Absence of surface (plaster surface) waterproofing, plumbing or sewage system failure that is located through or near the wall, rising damp, excessively moist outdoor environment, excessively humid indoor environment that is poorly ventilated. If one is unable to identify with certainty, and to prevent/repair the cause of the problem, it is highly advisable to seek help from the Technical Support Team of DUROSTICK before deciding what the next steps will be.
What kind of support does DUROSTICK provide before, during, and after the purchase of its plasters and/or its alternative plastering solutions that it offers?
DUROSTICK is next to you, from the initial stages of looking and finding/discovering your own personal solution(s), the selection and purchase of the appropriate, for each case, products, but also during the application steps and beyond. Our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, and mobile app support, is available and at your disposal 24/7. We are next to you, by making our vast information, knowledge and experience available to you in print and digital format. We are next to you with educational videos for the correct and proper use of a variety of our products. All of the above are available for you, at our points of sale and of course on the Internet, and even by mail.
Paints - Varnishes
How long does paint last?
When the paint is kept tightly sealed in the original factory container, it usually lasts for up to 18 months from its date of production. It is important to store the paint in spaces that do not come in direct contact with sunlight or they are not exposed to any heat sources. The ideal storage conditions are between 50C και 350C 
How can I remove mold and algae from a wall surface?
Nowadays, the removal of mold and algae can be achieved easily by using special purpose products, such as the mold and mildew remover of DUROSTICK, D-95. Simply use it by following its direction of use, as described on the container. Alternatively, remove mold and algae by first cleaning the affected areas using a wire brush. CAUTION: Make sure to use the wire brush without damaging the original surface. Remove all the dust by taking all necessary precautions against air contamination or inhalation according to your local and national building codes. Continue by cleaning the surface using a bleach/water solution. Use a dilution rate of 1 part bleach to 20 parts water and clean using a sponge or soft brush. Allow for the solution to act for five to ten minutes and rinse thoroughly with a sponge, using clean water. If the moisture cannot be permanently removed from the affected area, it is possible for mold to reappear. To contain or totally eliminate mold or algae formations, it might be necessary to paint the area using a paint that protects the wall surface(s) from mold & mildew. In addition, frequent venting of the space is a proven and useful action.
How much does painting costs?
The cost of painting is determined by the sum of several factors, among which are included, but not limited to, the cost of paint (whether painting for the first time or repainting), labor costs if not doing it ourselves, whether or not there is a need for scaffolding etc. In any case, it is always advisable to get at least two, if not three different quotes and compare before making any decisions.
Why darker colors cost more?
Darker colors tend to be more expensive due to the addition of the coloring pigments (usually organic pigments) into the paint base in order to create the desired color. The rule of thumb says that in order to create a darker color, the addition of a larger amount of pigments is required.
Can I prevent paint brush marks from forming, and if yes how?
There are several reasons that could lead to brush marks on the painted surface(s). The inappropriate, not recommended dilution of the paint (paint that is too thin, too thick or diluted with incorrect medium), the use of a weathered and/or damaged painting brush as well as the incorrect application method are the most common reasons for the creation of brush marks on painted surfaces. The experience of the painter usually is enough to minimize, if not eliminate the reasons above. Alternatively, follow the dilution instructions of the paint manufacturer, use a paint brush that is in good condition and try to familiarize yourself with the use of the paint brush to avoid the occurrence of brush marks.
Can I avoid paint odors during or after the application?
Yes, by using water based products (paints, primers). When using an ecological paint, such as DUROSTICK SUPER ECO By also keeping doors and windows open during and after the painting, until the paint is sufficiently dry (when painting indoors). When using solvent based and/or alkyd paints, the smell is very likely to remain for a few days (when painting indoors). 
Can I permanently prevent mold growth on painted surfaces?
No, mold grows on dark and wet corners and generally wherever there is limited air circulation. Paints that are highly resistant to mold are available in the market, however under certain conditions, such as described above, mold will eventually reappear. Preventive action/cleaning – maintenance at regular intervals is, usually, the best solution to minimize the frequency of the problem.
How do I clean already painted surfaces?
It is a known fact that cleaning and caring for painted surfaces, besides the benefits of increased hygiene, increases the longevity of the paint and prevents the necessity for frequent repainting of spaces. Always make sure that you clean painted surfaces using mild cleaners. Alternatively, use special purpose cleaners, such as DUROSTICK BIOCLEAN for nicotine & soot.
How can I remove mold and black spots from a surface that will be painted (repainted)?
There are several available products in the market for cleaning and removing mold. DUROSTICK D-95 is such a product and it is highly effective. One can also use a bleach/water solution (dilution rate 1 part bleach to 3 parts water). Apply the solution using a brush or a spray bottle. Tougher stains might require some scrubbing and additional cleaning. 
How can I remove the white chalky substance that surfaced on my plastered or concrete made wall?
That substance is a fluffy concentration of salt crystals that are forming due to the presence of moisture and salts within the mineral surface, whether it is plaster, concrete or else. The presence and further development of the crystals will continue to surface, as long as the reasons for their creation continue to exist. The salts have to be removed from the surfaces using mechanical means (you may also use a pressure washer, but always follow instructions to prevent any damage to the surface), and, if possible, the cause(s) have to be eliminated before considering repainting the surfaces. Repair and seal all points on the wall surfaces that moisture penetration is evident. Allow for the surfaces to dry completely. Prime the surface using the appropriate product and once dry, paint the entire surface.
How can I clean my freshly painted walls?
It is very important to know that at least 20 days have to pass after the completion of the painting process before we can clean the surface. This time frame will safeguard the longevity of the paint, and the effectiveness of the cleaning procedures, without damaging the newly painted surface(s). In any case, when selecting paints, choose a manufacturer that produces paints with exceptional washability, such as the DUROSTICK paints, to further safeguard surfaces from wear and tear or damage. Always use mild cleaners that are lightly or heavily diluted (with water most of the time), depending on the dirt and stain toughness. Clean using a sponge or a cotton cloth. Do not allow for the cleaning solution to dry on the wall surfaces. Rinse thoroughly with a sponge and clean cool water. Be advised, if using special cleaners always read the product instructions before any application.
Can dilution affect or even damage the paint I am using?
Most paints available in the market are ready for use but can be diluted 5% to 10%. The dilution ratio, as well as the dilution medium, will both be clearly marked on the container(s) of the paint(s). Please note that not following the proper dilution instructions might affect both the quality, the coverage and the overall performance of the paint.
The indoor walls I am about to paint have many imperfections. What solutions are available to me, so I can repair or, at least, hide the imperfections before painting?
There are more than one solutions available to you. Covering imperfections but also making the surface flat, if there is such a need, can be accomplished by skim coating the surface with spackling pastes. Spackling pastes vary, depending on their per-coat thickness, e.g. STUCCOFIX-P (1-1.5mm/coat), POWDER COAT (4mm/coat), and Granular (20mm/coat). It is also possible to ‘hide’ surface imperfections (defects) if the paint is applied with a styling sponge (creating a surface texture), or if using a textured, specialty paint
.What can I use to paint the floor of my garage?
Before Taking any action, it is necessary to ensure that there is no moisture trapped within the concrete slab. Once you establish that there is no moisture into the slab, continue with the painting of the concrete garage floor. It is highly advisable to use an epoxy based paint, DUROEPOXY or DUROEPOXY FLOOR SF (solvent free), but only after coating the concrete surface with the corresponding DUROSTICK epoxy based primer. Epoxy paints create non absorbent surfaces with increased hardness that are highly durable against abrasions and powerful acids and alkali. If the garage floor was previously coated with a product other than an epoxy based one, it is very important to ensure its stability and, if necessary, to remove the existing coating.
Are there any paints that can do other useful things besides paint and decorate (beautify) surfaces?
Painting a surface can do much more than beautify it (especially true when talking about outdoor surface paints). It can protect surfaces from moisture and water penetration (seals and waterproofs), it can cover hairline cracks and small defects on plaster surfaces, and it can also insulate surfaces to a certain extent, by vesting surfaces with reflective abilities, when applied in white or light colors. Choosing the appropriate (for each specific situation) paint, is a conditional for one or all of the above properties to become true, always depending on the paint purchased. Examples of such paints are the elastomeric paints D-80 Hydrostop Elastic and THERMOELASTIC COLOUR, the energy efficient ‘cool’ paint of DUROSTICK that paints, waterproofs and insulates wall surfaces.
Mud rain soils my walls and it is really hard to remove. I am experiencing a major problem because I end up repainting all the time. It there a solution to my problem?
It is true that mud rain is one difficult problem to deal with and it might be even harder to resolve it. DUROSTICK created an innovative, high quality paint of nanomolar technology, named WALL PRO NANO PAINT. This particular paint creates a film that does not allow for the majority of airborne dust or mud to adhere to it and does not allow any absorptions through the pores of the painted surface(s). Its composition also makes it possible to rinse the soiled surface with clean water or even with the unpolluted rain water (dust and mud free). Available in hundreds of colors through both DUROCOLOR & COLOR COLLECTION systems of DUROSTICK.  
There are a lot of GRAFFITI related activities in my area, especially on yard walls and outer walls in general. It happened in my house more than once. How can I deal with this situation?
We are aware of this problem. It’s true that it happens in many areas and often too. Although we can not reduce the frequency of those incidents, we can, however, make sure that cleaning graffiti from surfaces is as easy and quick as possible. For this very reason, we created the brand-new, silane modified polyurethane paint of exceptional quality and of advanced technology, DUROSTICK ANTIGRAFFITI. It creates a flexible, resilient sealing and waterproofing nonstick surface, resistant to any type of graffiti, spray paint or permanent markers etc. In the unlikely event that some color residues remain on the surface, easily remove them by using the specific purpose and very powerful paint cleaner DUROSTICK D-19 GRAFFITI REMOVER, and thoroughly rinse the cleaned surface with water under pressure or even a sponge.
What is the proper procedure for the painting of a room?
The more common practice is to first prime and paint the ceiling and then prime the walls. Continue, if desired, by decorating and styling parts, elements, or even entire wall surfaces. Seal around frames and moldings, or wherever sealing is required, especially on the intersecting points of building materials,  and then paint the wall surface(s). Follow the same procedures, even when you are just repainting a room.
What is the lifespan of a good painting brush?
In principle, a good quality painting brush will yield better results on a finished surface. Eventually, though, it will show signs of wear, especially when used on rough surfaces or used roughly in general. However, the ability of a good painting brush to yield  excellent results (when used properly), makes it worth the money. To answer your question, there is no set time limit for the duration or use of a painting brush. You have to judge on your own when the paint brush needs to be replaces based on its performance and the way it looks. You can increase its longevity though by simply cleaning it after each and every use according to the manufacturer’s instructions promptly and thoroughly and also by tightly wrapping it after the brush is clean and is still wet. This trick will maintain the shape of the bristles and of the brush and not allow it to fan out while drying ( a common occurrence).
If I fail to measure correctly and I need to purchase more paint to finish painting my space, will the supplementary color be the same color as the original one?
Truth be told, the paint manufacturers are trying really hard towards that goal. The fact, though, is that the products themselves (paint bases) but also the tinting machines (color making machines) usually yield colors with slight variations in terms of the original color(s). So, If during the painting process you realize that the remaining paint will not be enough for the completion of the surface painting, then it is advisable to stop at a natural cut (e.g. an inner or outer wall corner, around a door or a window etc.) and continue with the supplementary paint from that cut point on.
Is there a special paint for wet locations, such as bathrooms?
Of course, there is. The specific purpose paint KITCHEN & BATH of DUROSTICK is a specially manufactured paint. It creates a surface that is resistant to mold and mildew that grows in wet environments such as bathrooms and kitchens, due to water vapour built up during the cooking or the showering process. Clean the surface(s) thoroughly to completely remove mold, mildew, and stains that may already exist and apply the paint worry-free, on ceilings, walls and other surfaces found in wet locations. 
Is there a special paint/color for children rooms?
The nursery, the children rooms, rooms that we deal with great sensitivity, require our careful selection when it comes to paint(s) and color(s). In order to protect the health of children, our choice of paint usually revolves around branded ecological painting products that are certified by official Greek and/or European authorities. Such painting products as SUPER ECO paint of DUROSTICK, that carries certification from the Supreme Council of Ecological Sign Conferment (YPEKA-Greek National Organization) and the organization for awarding the ecological sign within the european union, E.U. ECOLABEL EL/07/023.
What is better to use on wood: Transparent or semi-transparent varnish or should I just paint?
First of all, one can say that this choice is purely a matter of aesthetics. Transparent and semi-transparent varnishes, after their application, leave the wood grain visible (fully or partially) and highlight it. Paint on the other hand completely covers the wood grain. The coverage of the surface (wood grain) may be considered appropriate when the wood surface has various blemishes or damage that we want to cover. Paint application is also appropriate after spackling parts or the entire wood surface.
Skimming pastes - Coatings
What is the purpose of skim coating a surface?
The skimming/smoothing of any surface is done primarily for its beautification (it creates exceptionally smooth surface). It is done for the purpose of changing/improving the finish surface, which is usually followed by painting. Another reason for skim coating surfaces may relate to wallpaper, as well as other types of lining installations. Most of the times skim coating relates to indoor spaces but there are certain projects that may require skimming for outdoor surfaces as well.
What should I know, and most importantly, what should I do to the substrate before skim coating?
First of all, you need to know whether the substrate is compatible with the skim coat paste to be used on it or not. If it is not, examine if there is any way to make it compatible (e.g. priming of the substrate with a specific primer that is suited to each individual case). Consider the condition of the substrate, and then take all necessary steps to prepare it so as it can safely accept the skimming paste. If the substrate is not flat nor even, it should be flattened by using different pastes, based on the different per coat thickness needed (GRANULAR (20mm/coat), GRANULAR ULTRA (15mm/coat), POWDER COAT (4mm/coat)). If the substrate is not stable and clean, make it so by cleaning and removing all loose sections, debris and dust. Continue by priming the substrate using the micromolar stabilizer (primer) DUROSTICK AQUAFIX. If the substrate has any defects, dents, surface cracks, etc., repair and smooth it out using the spackling pastes mentioned above. Now that the substrate is properly prepared, apply the ultrafine skim coat paste STUCOFIX P (in powder form) or alternatively use STUCOFIX (in putty form) if you want a very smooth finish surface.
Is there a difference between skimming and spackling paste and what is it?
The grain size within the composition of spackling pastes is suitable for achieving  thicker, per coat, applications (GRANULAR 20mm per coat, GRANULAR ULTRA 15mm per coat). Most of the times, and always depending on the product itself, spackling pastes are used to fill and even out larger manufacturing defects, pouring flaws and damage. Their obvious advantages are that they can fill those defects quicker since they can be applied in thicker coats safely, without bursting or cracking and that they are suitable for outdoor applications. Skimming pastes are designed for creating a perfectly smooth surface that is ready for paint, wallpaper, and most other linings. The application thickness of skimming pastes is usually small (STUCOFIX P 1mm per coat, POWDER COAT 4mm per coat), but exceptionally smooth, when applied correctly. Some skimming pastes can be applied outdoors, however, it is always a good practice to look for that information on the packaging before applying outdoors.
What kind of surfaces can I skim coat?
When using pastes in powder form (STUCOFIX P, POWDER COAT, GRANULAR, GRANULAR ULTRA), you can skim coat wall and ceiling surfaces made of marble based plaster, drywall and cement board, concrete and aircrete etc. Additionally, when using putties (STUCCOFIX), you may also skim coat wood surfaces, frames and casings, doors, windows and even boats. For cement boards, in particular, and available for you, DUROSTICK manufactures the special purpose paste in powder form, D-77, the resinous cement paste for cement boards.
Is skim coating suitable only for indoor surfaces?
Usually it is (living and dining rooms mostly). However, skimming outdoor surfaces is not a rarity. That is especially true when the skim coating of the surfaces requires greater application thicknesses, where skim coat pastes such as GRANULAR and GRANULAR ULTRA (with per coat thickness of 20mm and 15mm respectively), can successfully replace the traditional plastering of surfaces. It is good to know that cementitious based skimming pastes work exceptionally well, in environments both indoors and out.
What is the appropriate skim coat thickness?
The appropriate skim coat thickness is determined always in conjunction with the substrate and its physical condition, as well as the texture required as a final surface, after the application. Keep in mind, though, the texture requiredcan be achieved in one or more coats of spackling, also depending on the chosen spackling product and its per coat maximum thickness. The thickness of skim coating is usually up to 1mm thick per coat. Greater thicknesses than that are usually referred to as spackling or filling coats. The grain size of a paste is what makes it suitable for skim coating, the smaller the grain size, the smoother the finished surface.
Can I color the skimming paste? If yes, why should I do that?
Surely you can color skimming pastes. Do it by adding the pigments in powder form, DUROCOLOR POWDER C of DUROSTICK, in 96 color chart colors. Coloring the skimming paste gives you two advantages. When you decide to color the paste similarly to the finishing paint color, you effectively reduce the painting coats required to achieve proper paint coverage and additionally, if and when there is some damage to the painted surface, the damage will be barely or not at all visible. Also, it is much easier to detect flaws and defects on skimmed surfaces that colored skimming pastes were used because early flaw detection allows for immediate adjustment and correction, before painting.Thus, the skimming pastes' ability to be colored saves you precious time, labor and potential labor related extra costs.
Can I skim coat using more than one skimming/spackling pastes or putties?
Not only you can but in many cases, the use of several skimming pastes is a necessity as well as a good practice. What those cases are? Those cases are surfaces/substrates that are not smooth and/or level, substrates with surface damage, dents and cracks  etc. To smooth and even out the substrate before applying the finishing skim coat using an ultrafine skimming paste (STUCCOFIX P), will probably require the application of successive skim coats of STUCCOFIX P. Alternatively, use other (spackling) pastes with various per-coat thicknesses, POWDER COAT, GRANULAR, or GRANULAR ULTRA, thus reducing the number of coats required and of course, labor related costs.
What materials/products can I apply/install over a skimmed surface?
It is important to know that before you attempt to do anything on a skimmed surface, it is absolutely necessary to prime that surface using the appropriate and suitable, (for the installation/application that will follow), primer. Those primers can be DUROSTICK AQUAFIX, SOLVENT BASED PRIMER or else, always depending on the application that will follow. After the priming is completed, you can paint using any type of paint, (the skim coated surface can accept all paint types when properly primed). After the appropriate primer is used, you can also install any type of lining by using the specific, for the lining, adhesive. You can use cementitious and acrylic,adhesives as well as wallpaper adhesives etc., safely and securely.
Can I skim coat a surface on my own or I need the assistance of a craftsman?
Although this it is a job usually performed by craftsmen, if you are handy, you can also perform it yourself, once you get familiar with the right step-by-step procedures. You can always try it, see if you are satisfied with the result and continue until the completion of the project. Just make sure you know what to do at each step of the application and continue on. If you have any questions, please contact our Technical Support Team at technical@durostick.gr and we will answer them for you. Read the necessary product and application instructions that can be found on the product packaging and in the technical manuals of the company, in print and digital format, on the Company website www.durostick.gr and also www.yparxeilysi.gr.
How will I choose the appropriate repair product for a skim coated surface?
Carefully examine the condition of the surface and the extent of the damage before you start working. Also, judge the surface using your own aesthetics, as well as your own and other requirements for the finished surface you want to create. Make notes of the steps required to properly prepare the surface, as well as the products needed for the completion of those steps. Choose brand name products, that are certified, reliable and well established in the marketplace, products that will assist you in achieving the best result possible.
What is the correct procedure for painting skim coated surfaces?
Before starting painting, make sure that the texture of the surface is sufficiently smooth, according to the/your requirements and aesthetics. Also, make sure that the flatness and evenness of the surface(s) is satisfactory and that there are no loose sections (bursts), visible defects or any damage. If needed, sand using the appropriate sandpaper and remove all the dust from both the floor but also the wall/ceiling surface(s). Start by priming the surface with the suitable, for the situation, primer ((DUROSTICK AQUAFIX, SOLVENT BASED PRIMER) and let it dry sufficiently. Paint the surface using the paint of choice by strictly following the instructions on the packaging (dilution rates, drying times etc.).
What kind of support does DUROSTICK provide before, during and after the purchase of its spackling and skimming pastes/putties?
DUROSTICK is next to you, from the initial stages of looking and finding/discovering your own personal solution(s), the selection and purchase of the appropriate, for each case, products, but also during the application steps andbeyond. Our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, and mobile app support, is available and at your disposal 24/7. We are next to you, by making our vast information, knowledge and experience available to you in print and digital format, with educational videos for the correct and proper use of a variety of our products, and by having them available for you, at our points of sale and of course on the Internet, and even by mail.
Stylings Pastes, Putties and Powders
On what kind of surfaces or substrates can one apply styling powders, putties or pastes?
The styling products of DUROSTICK (in paste, putty or powder form), are applied on a multitude of mineral surfaces. Surfaces made of plaster, finish concrete, drywall, cement board, aircrete etc. Styling products can be applied even on wood and metal surfaces, as long as the substrate is properly prepared and ensures safe adhesion of the paste, putty or powder on it.
Can I apply styling products both indoor, and outdoor as well?
Usually, styles are created in indoor spaces as well as on objects (walls, columns, fireplaces, sofas, furniture, etc). Creating styles outdoors is not a common practice. However, it is achievable but under specific guidelines and certain conditions, mainly that the application surface(s) must be covered, and avoid direct contact with strong sunlight or rainwater.
Can I apply styling pastes, putties, and powders or one needs specific knowledge, skills and experience?
Knowledge, experience, skill and daring imagination. All these are exactly what one needs to create and reach amazing results. Each result is absolutely unique, as is the level of experience or skill one posseces. Experienced craftsmen definitely have an advantage when it comes to specific style creations, but that does not exclude an amateur from creating a wonderful effect as well. In any case, judging a styling creation is, and will always remain a subjective matter. So go ahead and dare. Do not hesitate. You will not simply create a style. You will create your own personal, unique style.
What if I don’t like it at the end? Can I change it? If yes, how easy will it be?
Everything can be altered. It is a lot easier, however, to change things while the application is still fresh, and the styling surface can easily accept your modifying interventions. Corrections can be made to dry surfaces as well. Even after completing the styling application, one can still change everything by adding or removing, with small brushstrokes and minor touches, even redo the entire surface until you reach the aesthetically acceptable and satisfactory outcome desired.  
Do I use one or do I need more products to style surfaces?
Usually, one uses the styling paste (or putty) of choice and the pigments that create the desired aesthetic results. Also, one should use a product(s) to protect the style (varnish, wax etc), and stabilize the newly crafted surface. The use of a protective product also prevents the penetration of all kinds of stains and helps the longevity of the surface that was styled.
Is styling with pastes, putties and powders durable?
Providing that one strictly follows the instructions for use (regarding the proper application of the materials), as well as abiding by the suggestion for the appropriate surface protection during the final step of the styling application, then yes, the durability of the style application is impressively long. Of course, it is also absolutely necessary to properly prepare all substrates before any style applications on them. 
How do I combine color(s) with my styling application?
Undeniably, colors are decorative elements for a space, however, they can also be neutral backgrounds. Apply one or more colors, in composition, in contrast, but also, apply them combined with styling elements as means of highlighting objects or sections of the space, giving that space unique aesthetics, look and identity. It is highly advisable to first get some basic knowledge of the color circle, color combinations as well as color contrasts. One can find relevant information on the subject, in the «THE COLOR OF EMOTIONS» brochure, or in its digital form that is readily available in the DUROSTICK site. 
Styling materials: expensive or inexpensive?
DUROSTICK styling products are inexpensive, easy to use and very effective. However, what makes a styling decoration unique, amazing and of high aesthetic value is the styling (the application) itself. The way that all the applied materials connect, more, less or not at all, with your aesthetic chord. Please keep in mind, the quality of the materials is not always directly linked to the price. Furthermore, the quality of the materials is necessary, but not by itself an absolute condition that will ensure the outcome of the application. An incredible outcome, not only requires craftsmanship but also aesthetic and artistic 'feel', a certain 'touch' the person styling the surface(s) or elements might possess. It certainly requires using imagination and dare.
Is there any printed, digital or another type of information available by DUROSTICK, information that I can find details relating to the styling pastes, putties and powders and their applications?
DUROSTICK is always by your side, from the initial stages of finding the appropriate styling solution for your project, the selection, and purchase of the appropriate, per the individual project, products, but also in the implementation steps of your project(s). We are with you, together with our Technical Support Team via phone, e-mail, special applications, mobile app support etc. We are also with you with a multitude of printed and digital informational and educational materials for the use of our styling, or else, products. All of our instructional materials are available at points of sale of the products, on the Internet at the company sites, even through the regular mail.
Cleaning Products
Are cleaning products safe during and after use for my health?
It depends solely on each product or the category of the product separately. Certainly, there are products that are somewhat or not at all harmful to the users' health. For example, cleaning products marked 'eco' and fully biodegradable cleaning products, are presumed and considered safe products. All industry manufactured cleaning products carry on their labels all the requisite information and markings related to their proper storage, safety directions, and directions for use. The label also carries specific application instructions on how to use the product correctly, in order for the product to perform to its specifications and to avoid unwanted situations. Read, get informed and choose whether to use them or not. Follow in detail all the instructions that you will find on the packaging of each individual cleaner.
What is a biodegradable cleaner? Do they clean effectively?
A biodegradable product, (in our case a cleaning product), is a product that is capable of being broken down (decompose) rapidly, by the action of microorganisms. The group of biodegradable substances includes products manufactured from natural materials. The biodegradability of the products does not directly relate to their cleaning action/power which means that they clean effectively.
What are special purpose cleaners? Are those cleaners stronger that ordinary ones?
They are cleaners specially designed and created to effectively attack and eliminate difficult to remove oily or watery stains that have not being cleaned (usually) for extended periods of time and have penetrated into the surface pores. Presumably, these types of special purpose cleaners are more effective than ordinary cleaners but also specifically designed as not to cause any wear or damage to the surfaces which they are designed to clean (e.g marble surfaces), if and when all their directions of use are strictly followed.
How can I ensure that cleaning an object or a surface, will not harm it?
First of all, choose and trust a brand name that makes reliable products, and particularly those that carry credible certifications. Carefully read the packaging label of the product (cleaning product in this case) that you intend to use. Most cleaners usually describe the implementation surfaces (and sometimes even the objects) of the cleaner that can be used effectively and safely and draws attention to specific applications, objects, and surfaces that are not recommended to be used on. However, an additional good practice -if such a possibility exists- is to actually test the product on a small, and not so visible, area of the surface to be cleaned. Then, and only if you do not see a problem, continue the application of the cleaner on the remaining surface.
How important is to follow all instructions for use and safety directions for each cleaning product?
It is equally important to follow both the instructions for use and the safety directions for each and every cleaning product. It is also very important to choose products that include these types of instructions on their container or packaging. Compliance with the instructions for use ensures the best possible cleaning outcome but also, in most cases, prevents any damaging effects or wear onto the surfaces to be cleaned. On the other hand, following safety directions protects the user of the cleaner. It will also protect anyone else within the space during the cleaning process, (in some cases even after cleaning). That protection refers to adverse reactions  to their health, immediate or over time (allergic reactions, damage to the respiratory system, rashes and any other form of skin damage etc.).
What should I be looking out for when using cleaning products indoors?
Make sure that the room is adequately ventilated while cleaning. Maintain that ventilation for some time after you are done cleaning. You must remove yourself from the space if you feel that fumes of the product are causing you, and maybe others in the space, any kind of discomfort. It is a good practice not to have any children, elderly or people with chronic pulmonary condition or skin condition located in the area since potential fumes generated during or after cleaning might adversely affect them.
Where and how should I store the cleaning products in my house?
Store all cleaning products and supplies away from the reach of children. Store them in places with normal temperature conditions.
How often should I use cleaning products/how can I calculate the frequency of their use? Is there a way to lessen the use of cleaning products?
When dealing with residential and/or private spaces, the frequency of use of cleaning products is usually a subjective matter. However, the frequency of using cleaning products for commercial spaces also depends on the hygiene requirements for those spaces, as they arise from the appropriate legislation (restaurants, hospitals, hotels etc.). The use of the space, coming in contact with or being adjacent to surfaces with pollutants, the ambient conditions of the space (relative humidity, adequate ventilation, lighting etc.), the condition of the surfaces, the existence of waterproofing on the surfaces or not, and possibly other special factors are all parameters that determine both our decision to clean the area and the frequency with which cleaning is planned to be carried out.
What should I do If someone accidentally swallows a cleaning product? What should I do if the cleaning product or its fumes come in direct contact with the skin or the eyes and create redness, rash or burn?
In case of ingesting a cleaning product seek immediate medical attention or contact the Poison Control Center at the number provided on the product packaging. The label on the packaging of the cleaning product must be readily available to show, as it contains vital information in case treatment is needed.